Difference between revisions of "Study Guide:Delivery"

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'' Prev: [[Study Guide:OBS]] - Overview: [[Study Guide]] - Next: [[Study Guide:Ground]]''
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'' <-- Back: [[Study Guide:OBS]] - Overview: [[Study Guide]] - Next--> [[Study Guide:Ground]]''
  
== Introduction  ==
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= Introduction  =
  
This Study Guide has been designed to give you all the information needed to start controlling as a Clearance/Delivery controller on the VATSIM network. It assumes, that you have read and understood the [[Study Guide:OBS]] before.
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This Study Guide has been designed to give you all the information needed to start controlling as a Clearance/Delivery controller on the VATSIM network. It assumes, that you have read and understood the [[Study Guide:OBS]] before and have logged in as observer.
  
== Working Delivery Positions  ==
+
= Working Delivery Positions  =
  
Clearance Delivery is responsible for checking and correcting flightplans of departing aircraft and issue routing clearances to them. This task may sound boring, but is important for upstream controllers: Clearances take time (on the radio) and may block vital commands (like takeoff and landing clearances), and radar stations rely on the checked and cleared values (SIDs and clearance altitudes) for their controlling. If DEL makes mistakes, APP will notice.
+
Clearance Delivery is responsible for checking and correcting flightplans of departing aircraft and issue routing clearances to them. This task may sound boring, but is important for upstream controllers: Clearances take time (on the radio) and may block vital commands (like takeoff and landing clearances), and radar stations rely on the checked and cleared values (SIDs and clearance altitudes) for their controlling. If DEL makes mistakes, APP will have trouble.
  
 
There are 2 types of flight plans at VATSIM:
 
There are 2 types of flight plans at VATSIM:
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*VFR: VFR pilots can file flight plans, but they don't need to. They can simply ask for taxi clearance, take off and continue in uncontrolled airspace.
 
*VFR: VFR pilots can file flight plans, but they don't need to. They can simply ask for taxi clearance, take off and continue in uncontrolled airspace.
  
=== Flightplan Structure  ===
+
= Flightplan Structure  =
  
 
'''Flight plans''' are documents filed by pilots with the local Civil Aviation Authority prior to departure. They generally include basic information such as departure and arrival points, estimated time en route, alternate airports in case of bad weather, type of flight (whether instrument flight rules or visual flight rules), pilot's name and number of people on board.
 
'''Flight plans''' are documents filed by pilots with the local Civil Aviation Authority prior to departure. They generally include basic information such as departure and arrival points, estimated time en route, alternate airports in case of bad weather, type of flight (whether instrument flight rules or visual flight rules), pilot's name and number of people on board.
 +
 +
At VATSIM, flight plans are filed with a VATSIM server.
  
 
'''For IFR flights''', flight plans are used by air traffic control to initiate tracking and routing services.  
 
'''For IFR flights''', flight plans are used by air traffic control to initiate tracking and routing services.  
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#'''Airway:''' Airway routing occurs along pre-defined pathways called Airways. Mostly aircraft are required to fly airways between the departure and destination airports. The rules cover altitude, airspeed, and requirements for entering and leaving the airway (SIDs and STARs). Airways have letters and numbers like "Y868 or "UM125".
 
#'''Airway:''' Airway routing occurs along pre-defined pathways called Airways. Mostly aircraft are required to fly airways between the departure and destination airports. The rules cover altitude, airspeed, and requirements for entering and leaving the airway (SIDs and STARs). Airways have letters and numbers like "Y868 or "UM125".
 
#'''Navaid:''' Navaid routing occurs between Navaids (short for Navigational Aids) which are not always connected by airways. Navaid flight plans are used for IFR aircraft which don't have a GPS receiver - they can't follow waypoints. Navaid routing is typically only allowed in the continental U.S. If a flight plan specifies Navaid routing between two Navaids which are connected via an airway, the rules for that particular airway must be followed as if the aircraft was flying Airway routing between those two Navaids. Allowable altitudes are covered in Flight Levels.  
 
#'''Navaid:''' Navaid routing occurs between Navaids (short for Navigational Aids) which are not always connected by airways. Navaid flight plans are used for IFR aircraft which don't have a GPS receiver - they can't follow waypoints. Navaid routing is typically only allowed in the continental U.S. If a flight plan specifies Navaid routing between two Navaids which are connected via an airway, the rules for that particular airway must be followed as if the aircraft was flying Airway routing between those two Navaids. Allowable altitudes are covered in Flight Levels.  
#'''Direct:''' Direct routing occurs when one or both of the route segment endpoints are at a latitude/longitude which is not located at a Navaid.
+
#'''Direct:''' Direct routings are becoming more and more common as FRA (Free Route Airspace) is under ongoing development in Europe.
 +
 
 +
'''For VFR flights''', the only purpose is to provide needed information should search and rescue operations be required. At VATSIM, a VFR flight plan is handy for controllers, as it shows vital information with the airplane tag on the radar, like the destination.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Lateral Syntax ==
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Syntax for IFR flight plans''' is quite strict, and pilots are encouraged to look up flight plans via online tools and paste the code into the routing field. The format is usually <waypoint><via><waypoint><via>, where every waypoint is noted, where the itinerary changes from one route to another (waypoints on the same airway are omitted). This is necessary, as radar clients (Euroscope) read and interpret this data.
 +
 
 +
Example: A valid routing from LOWW to EDDM is the following:
 +
 
 +
SOVIL DCT SITNI DCT BAGSI DCT MATIG DCT AMADI Q113 NAPSA NAPSA3A
 +
 
 +
* SOVIL is the SID exit point.
 +
* SITNI DCT BAGSI DCT MATIG DCT AMADI are enroute waypoints.
 +
* Q113 is an airway.
 +
* The "DCT" in-between means that there is no airway between these points: they are "Direct".
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==Vertical Syntax==
 +
 
 +
So far we have specified the lateral dimension. To further specify the '''vertical aspects''' a speed and level segment has to be attached to the RTE string:
 +
 
 +
Format -> NxxxxFyyy or NxxxxAyyy
 +
 
 +
i.e '''N0450F340'''
 +
*'''N0450''' indicates the planned TAS (True Airspeed)
 +
*'''F340''' indicates the planned FL (Flightlevel)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
For flights which will remain in lower airspace i.e below the transition altitude the following is used:
 +
 
 +
N0120A080
 +
 
 +
*'''A080''' indicates Altitude 8000ft (QNH)
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
A "/" is used to attach such a speed and level group to a waypoint e.g:
 +
 
 +
'''N0450F340''' OSPEN DCT ABRUK DCT SETAL DCT DETSA/'''N0450F350'''
 +
 
 +
The first group indicates the initial planned TAS and Level, the second group indicates a Level Change at DETSA to '''FL350'''.
 +
 
 +
 
  
'''For VFR flights''', their only purpose is to provide needed information should search and rescue operations be required. At VATSIM, a VFR flight plan is handy for controllers, as it shows vital information with the airplane tag on the radar, like the destination.
+
==VFR Syntax ==
  
----
 
  
== Workflow for DEL controllers ==
+
SIERRA SEMMERING MUR MUERZ LOWZ GERLOS MIKE
=== 1. Setup ===
+
 
When you log in as DEL, you have to do two things (if waiting pilots jump on you, tell them to stand by until you have done it!):
+
* Sector S is the preferred VFR exit route from Vienna TMA
 +
* The rest is a description of a popular route to Innsbruck through scenic mountains
 +
* Mike ist the appropriate entry into LOWI.
 +
 
 +
= Workflow for DEL controllers =
 +
== Setup ==
 
# Check with the upstream controller (TWR, APP, CTR) for active runways and set active airport and runways in your Euroscope "active runways" dialogue box.
 
# Check with the upstream controller (TWR, APP, CTR) for active runways and set active airport and runways in your Euroscope "active runways" dialogue box.
# Check with the upstream controller the active ATIS letter. Set your ATIS dialog box to your airport and the active letter, but don't connect (ATIS is TWR's job). Set this way, Euroscope will show the valid ATIS letter in your METAR list and you don't need to ask every few minutes. If there is no ATIS, then check active runway and wind, as you will need to tell this to pilots.
+
# Check with the upstream controller the active ATIS letter. Set your ATIS dialog box to your airport and the active letter, but don't connect (ATIS is TWR's job). Set this way, Euroscope will show the valid ATIS letter in your METAR list and you don't need to ask every few minutes.  
 +
# If there is no Tower or upstream, then create an ATIS.
 +
 
 +
===Choosing the active runways===
 +
The guiding principle in choosing the active runways is that aircraft prefer to depart and land into the wind.
 +
An airport has one runway named 16/34. The wind is reported as 320 degrees at 14 knots. In
 +
this case runway 34 is chosen as the active runway.
 +
 
 +
Look at a more complicated example:
 +
 
 +
LOWW has two runways: 16/34 and 11/29.
 +
Suppose, wind is 020°, and you see: runway 34 is only 40° off, while 110 is 90° off --> runway 34 is the better choice.
 +
 +
Beware: All major airports have preferential runway configurations which depend on approach configuration, noise abatement and terrain.
 +
 
 +
Generally, tailwind components of up to ten knots are accepted.
 +
 
 +
However due to noise abatement and terrain considerations most airports have some kind of preferential runway system.
 +
Bear in mind that it is the pilots decision whether he can accept a certain runway because only he knows the performance of his aircraft.
 +
 
 +
For details on the preferred runway configurations for a specific airport ask your mentor or look into the airport QRS (quick reference sheets). See in the Resources section at the very bottom for links to them.
 +
 
 +
===ATIS===
 +
 
 +
ATIS stands for Automatic Terminal Information Service and is a usually automatically generated broadcast that contains essential information for pilots. It is continuously broadcasted on a dedicated frequency. On initial contact with the controller, pilots should already have listened to the ATIS and state the identifying letter.
 +
 
 +
An ATIS broadcast consists of:
 +
 
 +
*Name of the Airport
 +
*Identification Letter
 +
*Time of Observation
 +
*Active Runways
 +
*Transition Level
 +
*Wind direction and velocity
 +
*Visibilities
 +
*Special weather conditions (such as rain)
 +
*Cloud ceiling
 +
*Temperature and Dewpoint
 +
*QNH
 +
*Trends
 +
 
 +
It is updated every 30 minutes or as soon as significant changes occur.
  
=== 2. Check the flight Plan ===
+
==IFR flight plans==
At VATSIM, the journey starts with an aircraft popping up at an airport. Initially, the tag (in Euroscope) will show "NOFP", meaning: No flight plan filed so far. Some time later, a destination and more will show up, and that means: The pilot has filed a flight plan. On this point, DEL controller work starts. At this point, Euroscope has done already some work for you. DEL's job is to check and complete it, and to give clearance to the pilot. First, Check, if it is a VFR or IFR flight plan.
 
  
'''For IFR flight plans, ...'''
+
* Check, if "From"-Airport is yours and "To"-Airport makes sense. It is unlikely that a C172 will fly to GATB (Timbuktu) without stopovers, as well as a B737 flies VFR to KJFK. If anything looks wrong, ask the pilot to confirm his details. Nevertheless, as soon as you modify the FPLN, the pilot won't be able to amend his own FPLN anymore. Reconnection is required.
 +
* Check, if departure runway corresponds to the active runway. If not, then check your runway settings in Euroscope (Pilots never file a particular runway - it's Euroscope setting it for you).
 +
* Check, if cruise altitude is correct: Cruise altitude is stated in flight levels (hundreds of feet): FL280 means 28000 feet (at QNH 1013, to be really correct). For flight levels below FL410, '''westbound flights have even flight levels''', and '''eastbound flights have odd flight levels.''' Above FL410, flight levels increase by 20: west is FL430-470-510-550 etc, east is 450-490-530-570 etc. If the filed ALT requires a change - change it.
 +
*Check, if there is a valid SID from the active runway to the first waypoint in the flight plan.
  
*Check, if "From"-Airport is yours and "To"-Airport makes sense. It is unlikely that a C72 will fly to GATB (Timbuktu) without stopovers, as well as a B737 flies VFR to KJFK. If anything looks wrong, then ask the pilot to refile the flight plan.
+
Watch out:
*Check, if departure runway corresponds to the active runway. If not, then check your runway settings in Euroscope.
+
* At some airports (LOWI) there are more SIDs to the same waypoint, valid for different aircraft (usually, one is "standard" and the other are "special departures" depending on aircraft performance and equipment).
*Check, if cruise altitude is correct: Cruise altitude is stated in flight levels (hundreds of feet): FL280 means 28000 feet (at QNH 1013, to be really correct). For flight levels below FL410, '''westbound flights have even flight levels''', and '''eastbound flights have odd flight levels.''' Above FL410, flight levels increase by 20: west is FL430-470-510-550 etc, east is 450-490-530-570 etc.  If the cruise altitude is wrong, ask the pilot for the nearest correct altitudes up or down. If you want, correct the RFL or tell the pilot to file again.  
+
* At most airports there are special SIDs for aircraft with no FMC (Non-RNAV departures.)
*Check, if there is a valid SID from the active runway to the first waypoint in the flight plan. If not, then look for the cause. It could be an invalid flight plan (a flight plan must contain a waypoint which is the end of a SID - most SIDs have the waypoint in their names: SITNI5B is the SID leading from LOWW rwy 16 to SITNI). If the flight plan does not contain any valid waypoint, ask the pilot to refile a correct flight plan. If the flight plan is correct, then you might need to manually select the best SID.
+
* Some airports have noise abatement procedures.
*Euroscope has already selected the first matching SID in the alphabet. Check, if this SID is applicable to the aircraft and time (you might want to check with APP to clarify, which SIDs are correct), and select the best SID.
 
  
'''For VFR flight plans''', the task is easier. usually, it contains the destination and a verbal description of the pilot's intention (could be "circuits" or "platzrunde", or "LOWL via Donau").  
+
Euroscope has already selected the first matching SID in the alphabet. Check, if this SID is applicable to the aircraft type, performance, equipment and time (you might want to check with APP to clarify, which SIDs are correct), and select the best SID.
*Check, if this intention is possible and makes sense (you might check with TWR).
 
  
=== 2. Set Squawk and initial clearance altitude ===
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=== SSR Assignment + Initial Climb ===
*Set a squawk now. The squawk number space is predefined for each airport and written in the sector file. For normal purposes, automatic squawk allocation in Euroscope works fine. In high traffic situations like Finally Austria, the squawk space runs out quickly, and Euroscope runs mad. The result is duplicate squawks. Technically, this is not a problem at VATSIM (as plane-data links are made by pilot ID, not by squawk code), but in reality this would be a nightmare (which won't happen as in real life squawk codes are given by a Eurocontrol centralized computer). In this case, you have to set squawk codes by hand and start to fill other squawk number spaces, like 2500+. Don't attempt to set a squawk with a number higher than 7 - squawks are octets and don't have 8 and 9 (4707 is good, 4708 does not work).
+
*The squawk range is predefined for each airport and written in the sector file. For normal purposes, automatic squawk allocation in Euroscope works fine. In high traffic situations the squawk range might not be sufficient, and Euroscope indicates "DUPE" (for "duplicate squawk"). In this case, you have to set a new squawk.
*Set the initial climb altitude. This differs from airport to airport. LOWW has 5000ft for all SIDs ("A50" in the list), LOWI has FL160 for all SIDs, and Salzburg has different altitudes for different SIDs (look into the SID description).
+
* Since 2016, real-life technology has changed. The so-called "transponder mode S" ("S" stands for "selective") allows aircraft to be linked with other means than the transponder code. Certain mode S aircraft receive squawk 1000.
 +
*Set the initial climb altitude. This differs from airport to airport. LOWW has 5000ft for all SIDs ("A50" in the list), In LOWI, you have to check with APP (it's between FL120 and 160), and Salzburg has different altitudes for different SIDs (look into the SID description).
  
=== 3. Wait for initial contact ===
 
ATC is a service job - you wait for the pilot to come to you, as in real life you don't know if the pilot is on your frequency at all.
 
At some point, the aircraft will call you, ideally with the first (long) phrase. When congested, the short form is used:
 
<pre>LHA123: Wien Delivery, servus. Laipzich Air 123, Info B on board, gate C31, Fokker 70, requesting IFR clearance to München.
 
LHA456: Wien Delivery, Laipzich Air 456 ready to copy IFR clearance.</pre>
 
  
=== 4. Issue IFR Routing Clearances  ===
+
===Re-routing of traffic===
  
First, clear everything which is wrong or unclear in the flight plan, something like ...
+
If a filed routing is invalid or the decision to revise an A/C routing has been made by you it can be difficult to communicate this change in RTE to the pilot.
<pre>DEL: Leipzig Air 123, servus. Sir check your flight plan you fly eastbound in that case your flight level must be an odd flight level.
+
In an ideal world you would reroute an A/C before it calls you, thus avoiding unnecessary discussions on frequency. It is therefore suggestable to make use of private messages for this special case.
What do you prefer flight level 310 or 290?
 
LHA123: Flight level 310, Leipzig Air 123.</pre>
 
  
Then, '''issue your clearance''':
+
*ATC FPL AMENDED* REVISED RTE: SOVIL DCT SITNI DCT BAGSU DCT MATIG DCT NANIT NANIT2A
  
DEL gives routing clearances to all departing aircraft with the following information:<br>
+
By sending the message in this format you can reduce the likelihood of a possible discussion as it resembles an automatic message.
  
'''Destination of flight'''
+
Do not forget to also amend the ATC FPL in Euroscope.
'''SID''' (= Standard instrument departure) Normally the filed SID is given
 
Initial climb altitude after departure (5000ft)
 
'''Squawk''' (Squawk assignments for LOWW are 4600 to 4620)
 
'''ATIS''' (which ATIS letter is current)
 
CTOT (= Calculated take-off time) Slot time (Normally not used on the VATSIM network)
 
  
The '''bold''' marked points are mandatory, all other points are optional.<br> <br> Normal construction of a routing clearance:
+
=== RTE Clearance  ===
  
  <pre>Callsign, cleared to XXXX via XXXXX XX departure, (initial climb 5000ft), Squawk 46XX</pre>
+
DEL gives routing clearances to all departing aircraft with the following information:
 +
 
 +
* aircraft identification
 +
* clearance limit (normally destination aerodrome / or last IFR waypoint)
 +
* assigned SID
 +
* initial climb
 +
* allocated SSR code (squawk)
 +
*''' QNH if false or no ATIS letter reported.'''
 +
* any other necessary instructions e.g. instructions relating to change of frequency or CTOT (= Calculated take-off time) Slot time.
 +
 
 +
Normal construction of a routing clearance:
 +
 
 +
  Callsign, cleared to XXXX via XXXXX XX departure, initial climb 5000ft, Squawk 46XX, QNH XXXX
  
 
Example:  
 
Example:  
  
  <pre>Austrian 125, cleared to Frankfurt via LUGIM 1C departure, initial climb 5000ft,
+
  Austrian 125, cleared Frankfurt, LUGEM 1C departure, 5000ft, SQ1000, Q1022.
  Squawk 4601, info B is current.</pre>
+
 
 +
=== Traffic unable SID ===
 +
 
 +
Some Aircraft are not able to follow SIDs for various reasons, most of the time due to missing equipment.  
  
Some Aircraft are not able to follow SIDs for various reasons, most of the time due to missing equipment. In these cases you should issue a so called vectored departure. A vectored departure clearance includes the same components as a normal clearance but instead of the SID you issue instructions to be carried out after departure. In this case the initial climb altitude is mandatory.  
+
Vienna is equipped with a NON-RNAV SID -> the SNU departures. Any IFR equipped aircraft is sufficiently equipped to fly this SID, even if it has no FMS. This is your safest bet if a pilot has an old AIRAC or is simply unable for anything else.  
  
  Callsign,cleared to XXXX, after departure RWY XX, XXXXXXX, initial climb 5000ft,
+
'''If you issue such a clearance you will need to connect the SID, in our case SNU2C, to the filed RTE. First filed waypoint would be SITNI - this is issued as follows:'''
Squawk 46XX
+
 
 +
  AUA43EM, cleared Zürich SNU2C departure, SITNI next, 5000ft, SQ 1000, Q1032
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Additionally you can issue a so called vectored departure. A vectored departure clearance includes the same components as a normal clearance but instead of the SID you issue instructions to be carried out after departure.
 +
 
 +
AUA125, cleared XXXX, RWY XX, when airborn turn XXXX, climb 5000ft, SQ46XX, QNH XXXX
  
 
Example:  
 
Example:  
 +
Austrian 125, cleared Frankfurt, RWY29, when airborn turn left heading 200 , climb 5000 ft, SQ1000, Q1032.
 +
 +
 +
If the pilot responds with a correct readback you should answer with the following phrase:
 +
 +
Austrian 125, readback correct, report ready.
 +
 +
===Handover===
 +
 +
 +
Upon receiving the ready call - you may handover to Ground
 +
 +
Austrian 125, Ground 121,775 - Servus
 +
 +
This is done to keep the A/C on your Frequency until it is fully ready to move. By doing this DEL has the chance to communicate any RTE or Slot changes should they arise, thus reducing workload for the GND Controller.
 +
 +
== VFR Flights ==
 +
The Tower is responsible for VFR traffic. However, pilots have to contact DEL for clearance. You have to enquire with Tower about the details of the departure.
 +
 +
- runway to expect (VFR is not bound to the active rwy)
 +
 +
- route to expect
 +
 +
 +
OE-DLT: C172 at General aviation center, request to leave control zone via sector S.
 +
DEL: OE-DLT Expect RWY 16, leave Control Zone via Sector S, 1500ft or below, Squawk 7000, Q1032.
 +
OE-DLT: leave via Sector Sierra, 1500ft or below, Squawk 7000, Q1032.
 +
DEL: Readback correct, contact Ground 121.600Mhz.
 +
 +
OE-DLT: C172 Abstellplatz der Allgemeinen Luftfahrt, erbitte Freigabe zum verlassen der Kontrollzone über Sektor S.
 +
DEL: OE-DLT Aktive Piste 16, verlassen Sie die Kontrollzone über Sektor Sierra, 1500ft oder darunter, Squawk 7000, Q 1032.
 +
OE-DLT: Verlassen die Kontrollzone über Sektor Sierra, 1500ft oder darunter, Squawk 7000, Q1032.
 +
DEL: Korrekt, rufen Sie Wien Rollkontrolle 121.600Mhz.
  
<pre>Austrian 125, cleared to Frankfurt, after departure Runway 29, turn left heading 240
 
expect vectors to LUGIM, initial climb 5000 ft, Squawk 4601.</pre>
 
  
You can find the instructions for each Airport within the [[Study Guide:Airport Details]] If the pilot responds with a correct readback you should answer with the following phrase:
+
===Mode-S SQ7000===
  
Callsign, readback correct =>  Austrian 125, readback correct
+
As Mode-S transponder are mandatory in Austria, using the VFR squawk 7000 exclusively is sufficient.
  
=== 5. Handover ===
+
Should the need for a different Squawk arise - use 0001-0020.
Afterwards you either hand the pilot over to GND or wait for his startup request, depending on local procedures. You can do this joint with the readback answer, like:
 
  
Austrian 125, readback correct, contact Wien Ground "frequency" 121.60. Bye Bye
+
= Special Situations (High Traffic, Slots, ...)  =
  
----
 
  
== Special Situations (High Traffic, Slots, ...)  ==
+
== IFR Flights Terminating at Waypoints or Uncontrolled Aerodromes ==
  
=== Missing ATIS ===
+
An IFR Flight does not necessarily have to terminate at the destination Aerodrome.
*Maybe there is no upstream controller. Then you ask the pilot, which runway he wants to use. Then you can clear him.
 
*Maybe there is a technical problem and TWR cannot connect any ATIS. In this case, you have to check with TWR, which runway is in use, and get the METAR yourself from Euroscope. If the pilot does not find any ATIS, he/she should contact you with the following phrase. Anyway, you should answer him as follows, before any other clearance is given:
 
  
LHA123: Wien DEL, Leipzig Air 123, Position E42, requesting airport information.
+
IFR Flights to Bad Voeslau (LOAV) or Wiener Neustadt (LOAN) for example terminate at a specified Fix:
DEL: Leipzig 123, Wien Delivery, servus. Active runway is 34, wind 320 at 10, QNH 1030.
 
  
=== VFR flight plans ===
+
*'''MOVOS''' for LOAV arrivals
... are easier to clear. The Tower is always responsible for VFR Traffic.
+
*'''GESGI''' for LOAN arrivals
  
Now one short Example: Check '''Study Guide: TWR''' for more
+
To clear the following flight with destination LOAV:
TWR: OE-DLT, when ready taxi to h/p RWY 16 via M, W, E, wind 160 deg 12 knots, squawk 0001, QNH 1020. report when ready
 
OE-DLT: taxi to h/p rwy 16 via M, W and E, squawking 0001, QNH 1020, "wind copied".
 
...after some minutes...
 
TWR: OE-DLT, wind 160 with 12 knots rwy 16 clr T/O. After Departure you are cleared for left hand traffic pattern 1500 ft or below, report final.
 
OE-DLT: clr T/O, after dep left hand traffic pattern, report final
 
  
'''Important Note''':
+
N0110A050 SNU DCT MOVOS
  
Squawk's like 4601, 4602 and so on are reserved for IFR Flights. For VFR take a Range of 0001 - 0020 for example. Keep in Mind if you have high Traffic and that is in normal time IFR its better you take sqk's like 0002 and so on.
+
the following phraseology is to be used:
  
=== Slots ===
+
  OEFVR '''cleared to MOVOS''', SNU2C departure, 5000ft, SQ4601, Q1014
  
In order to guarantee a safe flow of traffic and to minimize delays in the air so called slots are being used. A slot is a timeframe of five minutes before to ten minutes after the CTOT mentioned before. The aircraft has to depart within this timeframe from its departure airport. On the VATSIM network this system is only used on special occasions. In real world the are always reserved SLOTS for the airliners. If they fail the slot time they must wait for a new. Responsible for the Slot Coordianten is the CFMU calls Central Flow Management Unit in Brussel. The CFMU analyse and calculate traffic demand for 1 day, per week, per month and so on.
+
As MOVOS is the clearance limit you may not clear an A/C any further. The flight is then expected to hold at MOVOS if not instructed to continue.
  
=== Behavior in situations with increased traffic  ===
+
== High Traffic Situations ==
  
 
Sometimes one of your neighboring sectors has to stop accepting traffic. In these cases you should delay an aircrafts start-up clearance.  
 
Sometimes one of your neighboring sectors has to stop accepting traffic. In these cases you should delay an aircrafts start-up clearance.  
Line 141: Line 265:
 
If possible you should inform the pilot about the expected delay:  
 
If possible you should inform the pilot about the expected delay:  
  
  Austrian 125, readback correct, expect startup in 10 minutes. "The reason for that is we have an emergency in progress"
+
  Austrian 125, expect startup in 15 minutes.
Austrian 125, startup approved, expect departure in 10 minutes. Thanks for Information
+
 
 +
Add 2 mins for each waiting aircraft.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Slots  ==
 +
 
 +
In order to guarantee a safe flow of traffic and to minimize delays in the air so called slots are being used. A slot is a timeframe of five minutes before to ten minutes after the CTOT (Calculated Time Of Takeoff) mentioned before. The aircraft has to depart within this timeframe from its departure airport. On the VATSIM network this system is only used on special occasions.
 +
 
 +
Responsible for Slot coordination is the CFMU called "Central Flow Management Unit" in Brussels.
 +
 
 +
=More Information=
 +
If you really want to study hard, then read the relevant sections for DEL in the official [http://www.austrocontrol.at/jart/prj3/austro_control/data/dokumente/YQPMe_LO_Circ_2012_B_04_en.pdf radio telephony guide from Austrocontrol].
 +
 
 +
A really good index (and much more orderly is [http://contentzone.eurocontrol.int/phraseology/ here at Eurocontrol].
 +
 
 +
 
 +
----
 +
 
 +
 
  
 
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'' Prev: [[Study Guide:OBS]] - Overview: [[Study Guide]] - Next: [[Study Guide:Ground]]''
  
 
[[Category:Documents]] [[Category:Study_Guides]] [[Category:Training]] [[Category:Controller]]
 
[[Category:Documents]] [[Category:Study_Guides]] [[Category:Training]] [[Category:Controller]]

Latest revision as of 01:18, 18 February 2021

<-- Back: Study Guide:OBS - Overview: Study Guide - Next--> Study Guide:Ground

Introduction

This Study Guide has been designed to give you all the information needed to start controlling as a Clearance/Delivery controller on the VATSIM network. It assumes, that you have read and understood the Study Guide:OBS before and have logged in as observer.

Working Delivery Positions

Clearance Delivery is responsible for checking and correcting flightplans of departing aircraft and issue routing clearances to them. This task may sound boring, but is important for upstream controllers: Clearances take time (on the radio) and may block vital commands (like takeoff and landing clearances), and radar stations rely on the checked and cleared values (SIDs and clearance altitudes) for their controlling. If DEL makes mistakes, APP will have trouble.

There are 2 types of flight plans at VATSIM:

  • IFR: Any pilot who flies IFR must file a flight plan. It contains the exact routing from departure to arrival, cruise altitude and some more information which controllers need for their job.
  • VFR: VFR pilots can file flight plans, but they don't need to. They can simply ask for taxi clearance, take off and continue in uncontrolled airspace.

Flightplan Structure

Flight plans are documents filed by pilots with the local Civil Aviation Authority prior to departure. They generally include basic information such as departure and arrival points, estimated time en route, alternate airports in case of bad weather, type of flight (whether instrument flight rules or visual flight rules), pilot's name and number of people on board.

At VATSIM, flight plans are filed with a VATSIM server.

For IFR flights, flight plans are used by air traffic control to initiate tracking and routing services.

Aircraft routing types used in IFR flight plans are: Airway, Navaid and Direct. A route may be composed of segments of different routing types.

  1. Airway: Airway routing occurs along pre-defined pathways called Airways. Mostly aircraft are required to fly airways between the departure and destination airports. The rules cover altitude, airspeed, and requirements for entering and leaving the airway (SIDs and STARs). Airways have letters and numbers like "Y868 or "UM125".
  2. Navaid: Navaid routing occurs between Navaids (short for Navigational Aids) which are not always connected by airways. Navaid flight plans are used for IFR aircraft which don't have a GPS receiver - they can't follow waypoints. Navaid routing is typically only allowed in the continental U.S. If a flight plan specifies Navaid routing between two Navaids which are connected via an airway, the rules for that particular airway must be followed as if the aircraft was flying Airway routing between those two Navaids. Allowable altitudes are covered in Flight Levels.
  3. Direct: Direct routings are becoming more and more common as FRA (Free Route Airspace) is under ongoing development in Europe.

For VFR flights, the only purpose is to provide needed information should search and rescue operations be required. At VATSIM, a VFR flight plan is handy for controllers, as it shows vital information with the airplane tag on the radar, like the destination.


Lateral Syntax

Syntax for IFR flight plans is quite strict, and pilots are encouraged to look up flight plans via online tools and paste the code into the routing field. The format is usually <waypoint><via><waypoint><via>, where every waypoint is noted, where the itinerary changes from one route to another (waypoints on the same airway are omitted). This is necessary, as radar clients (Euroscope) read and interpret this data.

Example: A valid routing from LOWW to EDDM is the following:

SOVIL DCT SITNI DCT BAGSI DCT MATIG DCT AMADI Q113 NAPSA NAPSA3A
  • SOVIL is the SID exit point.
  • SITNI DCT BAGSI DCT MATIG DCT AMADI are enroute waypoints.
  • Q113 is an airway.
  • The "DCT" in-between means that there is no airway between these points: they are "Direct".


Vertical Syntax

So far we have specified the lateral dimension. To further specify the vertical aspects a speed and level segment has to be attached to the RTE string:

Format -> NxxxxFyyy or NxxxxAyyy
i.e N0450F340
  • N0450 indicates the planned TAS (True Airspeed)
  • F340 indicates the planned FL (Flightlevel)


For flights which will remain in lower airspace i.e below the transition altitude the following is used:

N0120A080
  • A080 indicates Altitude 8000ft (QNH)


A "/" is used to attach such a speed and level group to a waypoint e.g:

N0450F340 OSPEN DCT ABRUK DCT SETAL DCT DETSA/N0450F350 

The first group indicates the initial planned TAS and Level, the second group indicates a Level Change at DETSA to FL350.


VFR Syntax

SIERRA SEMMERING MUR MUERZ LOWZ GERLOS MIKE
  • Sector S is the preferred VFR exit route from Vienna TMA
  • The rest is a description of a popular route to Innsbruck through scenic mountains
  • Mike ist the appropriate entry into LOWI.

Workflow for DEL controllers

Setup

  1. Check with the upstream controller (TWR, APP, CTR) for active runways and set active airport and runways in your Euroscope "active runways" dialogue box.
  2. Check with the upstream controller the active ATIS letter. Set your ATIS dialog box to your airport and the active letter, but don't connect (ATIS is TWR's job). Set this way, Euroscope will show the valid ATIS letter in your METAR list and you don't need to ask every few minutes.
  3. If there is no Tower or upstream, then create an ATIS.

Choosing the active runways

The guiding principle in choosing the active runways is that aircraft prefer to depart and land into the wind.

An airport has one runway named 16/34. The wind is reported as 320 degrees at 14 knots. In 
this case runway 34 is chosen as the active runway.

Look at a more complicated example:

LOWW has two runways: 16/34 and 11/29.
Suppose, wind is 020°, and you see: runway 34 is only 40° off, while 110 is 90° off --> runway 34 is the better choice.

Beware: All major airports have preferential runway configurations which depend on approach configuration, noise abatement and terrain.

Generally, tailwind components of up to ten knots are accepted.

However due to noise abatement and terrain considerations most airports have some kind of preferential runway system. Bear in mind that it is the pilots decision whether he can accept a certain runway because only he knows the performance of his aircraft.

For details on the preferred runway configurations for a specific airport ask your mentor or look into the airport QRS (quick reference sheets). See in the Resources section at the very bottom for links to them.

ATIS

ATIS stands for Automatic Terminal Information Service and is a usually automatically generated broadcast that contains essential information for pilots. It is continuously broadcasted on a dedicated frequency. On initial contact with the controller, pilots should already have listened to the ATIS and state the identifying letter.

An ATIS broadcast consists of:

  • Name of the Airport
  • Identification Letter
  • Time of Observation
  • Active Runways
  • Transition Level
  • Wind direction and velocity
  • Visibilities
  • Special weather conditions (such as rain)
  • Cloud ceiling
  • Temperature and Dewpoint
  • QNH
  • Trends

It is updated every 30 minutes or as soon as significant changes occur.

IFR flight plans

  • Check, if "From"-Airport is yours and "To"-Airport makes sense. It is unlikely that a C172 will fly to GATB (Timbuktu) without stopovers, as well as a B737 flies VFR to KJFK. If anything looks wrong, ask the pilot to confirm his details. Nevertheless, as soon as you modify the FPLN, the pilot won't be able to amend his own FPLN anymore. Reconnection is required.
  • Check, if departure runway corresponds to the active runway. If not, then check your runway settings in Euroscope (Pilots never file a particular runway - it's Euroscope setting it for you).
  • Check, if cruise altitude is correct: Cruise altitude is stated in flight levels (hundreds of feet): FL280 means 28000 feet (at QNH 1013, to be really correct). For flight levels below FL410, westbound flights have even flight levels, and eastbound flights have odd flight levels. Above FL410, flight levels increase by 20: west is FL430-470-510-550 etc, east is 450-490-530-570 etc. If the filed ALT requires a change - change it.
  • Check, if there is a valid SID from the active runway to the first waypoint in the flight plan.

Watch out:

  • At some airports (LOWI) there are more SIDs to the same waypoint, valid for different aircraft (usually, one is "standard" and the other are "special departures" depending on aircraft performance and equipment).
  • At most airports there are special SIDs for aircraft with no FMC (Non-RNAV departures.)
  • Some airports have noise abatement procedures.

Euroscope has already selected the first matching SID in the alphabet. Check, if this SID is applicable to the aircraft type, performance, equipment and time (you might want to check with APP to clarify, which SIDs are correct), and select the best SID.

SSR Assignment + Initial Climb

  • The squawk range is predefined for each airport and written in the sector file. For normal purposes, automatic squawk allocation in Euroscope works fine. In high traffic situations the squawk range might not be sufficient, and Euroscope indicates "DUPE" (for "duplicate squawk"). In this case, you have to set a new squawk.
  • Since 2016, real-life technology has changed. The so-called "transponder mode S" ("S" stands for "selective") allows aircraft to be linked with other means than the transponder code. Certain mode S aircraft receive squawk 1000.
  • Set the initial climb altitude. This differs from airport to airport. LOWW has 5000ft for all SIDs ("A50" in the list), In LOWI, you have to check with APP (it's between FL120 and 160), and Salzburg has different altitudes for different SIDs (look into the SID description).


Re-routing of traffic

If a filed routing is invalid or the decision to revise an A/C routing has been made by you it can be difficult to communicate this change in RTE to the pilot. In an ideal world you would reroute an A/C before it calls you, thus avoiding unnecessary discussions on frequency. It is therefore suggestable to make use of private messages for this special case.

*ATC FPL AMENDED* REVISED RTE: SOVIL DCT SITNI DCT BAGSU DCT MATIG DCT NANIT NANIT2A

By sending the message in this format you can reduce the likelihood of a possible discussion as it resembles an automatic message.

Do not forget to also amend the ATC FPL in Euroscope.

RTE Clearance

DEL gives routing clearances to all departing aircraft with the following information:

  • aircraft identification
  • clearance limit (normally destination aerodrome / or last IFR waypoint)
  • assigned SID
  • initial climb
  • allocated SSR code (squawk)
  • QNH if false or no ATIS letter reported.
  • any other necessary instructions e.g. instructions relating to change of frequency or CTOT (= Calculated take-off time) Slot time.

Normal construction of a routing clearance:

Callsign, cleared to XXXX via XXXXX XX departure, initial climb 5000ft, Squawk 46XX, QNH XXXX

Example:

Austrian 125, cleared Frankfurt, LUGEM 1C departure, 5000ft, SQ1000, Q1022.

Traffic unable SID

Some Aircraft are not able to follow SIDs for various reasons, most of the time due to missing equipment.

Vienna is equipped with a NON-RNAV SID -> the SNU departures. Any IFR equipped aircraft is sufficiently equipped to fly this SID, even if it has no FMS. This is your safest bet if a pilot has an old AIRAC or is simply unable for anything else.

If you issue such a clearance you will need to connect the SID, in our case SNU2C, to the filed RTE. First filed waypoint would be SITNI - this is issued as follows:

AUA43EM, cleared Zürich SNU2C departure, SITNI next, 5000ft, SQ 1000, Q1032


Additionally you can issue a so called vectored departure. A vectored departure clearance includes the same components as a normal clearance but instead of the SID you issue instructions to be carried out after departure.

AUA125, cleared XXXX, RWY XX, when airborn turn XXXX, climb 5000ft, SQ46XX, QNH XXXX

Example:

Austrian 125, cleared Frankfurt, RWY29, when airborn turn left heading 200 , climb 5000 ft, SQ1000, Q1032.


If the pilot responds with a correct readback you should answer with the following phrase:

Austrian 125, readback correct, report ready.

Handover

Upon receiving the ready call - you may handover to Ground

Austrian 125, Ground 121,775 - Servus

This is done to keep the A/C on your Frequency until it is fully ready to move. By doing this DEL has the chance to communicate any RTE or Slot changes should they arise, thus reducing workload for the GND Controller.

VFR Flights

The Tower is responsible for VFR traffic. However, pilots have to contact DEL for clearance. You have to enquire with Tower about the details of the departure.

- runway to expect (VFR is not bound to the active rwy)

- route to expect


OE-DLT: C172 at General aviation center, request to leave control zone via sector S.
DEL: OE-DLT Expect RWY 16, leave Control Zone via Sector S, 1500ft or below, Squawk 7000, Q1032.
OE-DLT: leave via Sector Sierra, 1500ft or below, Squawk 7000, Q1032.
DEL: Readback correct, contact Ground 121.600Mhz.
OE-DLT: C172 Abstellplatz der Allgemeinen Luftfahrt, erbitte Freigabe zum verlassen der Kontrollzone über Sektor S.
DEL: OE-DLT Aktive Piste 16, verlassen Sie die Kontrollzone über Sektor Sierra, 1500ft oder darunter, Squawk 7000, Q 1032.
OE-DLT: Verlassen die Kontrollzone über Sektor Sierra, 1500ft oder darunter, Squawk 7000, Q1032.
DEL: Korrekt, rufen Sie Wien Rollkontrolle 121.600Mhz.


Mode-S SQ7000

As Mode-S transponder are mandatory in Austria, using the VFR squawk 7000 exclusively is sufficient.

Should the need for a different Squawk arise - use 0001-0020.

Special Situations (High Traffic, Slots, ...)

IFR Flights Terminating at Waypoints or Uncontrolled Aerodromes

An IFR Flight does not necessarily have to terminate at the destination Aerodrome.

IFR Flights to Bad Voeslau (LOAV) or Wiener Neustadt (LOAN) for example terminate at a specified Fix:

  • MOVOS for LOAV arrivals
  • GESGI for LOAN arrivals

To clear the following flight with destination LOAV:

N0110A050 SNU DCT MOVOS 

the following phraseology is to be used:

OEFVR cleared to MOVOS, SNU2C departure, 5000ft, SQ4601, Q1014

As MOVOS is the clearance limit you may not clear an A/C any further. The flight is then expected to hold at MOVOS if not instructed to continue.

High Traffic Situations

Sometimes one of your neighboring sectors has to stop accepting traffic. In these cases you should delay an aircrafts start-up clearance.

If possible you should inform the pilot about the expected delay:

Austrian 125, expect startup in 15 minutes.

Add 2 mins for each waiting aircraft.


Slots

In order to guarantee a safe flow of traffic and to minimize delays in the air so called slots are being used. A slot is a timeframe of five minutes before to ten minutes after the CTOT (Calculated Time Of Takeoff) mentioned before. The aircraft has to depart within this timeframe from its departure airport. On the VATSIM network this system is only used on special occasions.

Responsible for Slot coordination is the CFMU called "Central Flow Management Unit" in Brussels.

More Information

If you really want to study hard, then read the relevant sections for DEL in the official radio telephony guide from Austrocontrol.

A really good index (and much more orderly is here at Eurocontrol.




Prev: Study Guide:OBS - Overview: Study Guide - Next: Study Guide:Ground