Difference between revisions of "Study Guide:Ground"

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(Taxiway configurations)
(Push-back clearance)
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Push-back clearance can be given if no other aircraft is passing behind and the parking position requires push-back.<br>  
Push-back clearance can be given if no other aircraft is passing behind and the parking position requires push-back.<br>  
  Austrian 125, push-back approved”
  Austrian 125, push-back approved
==== '''Combination of both phrases'''<br>  ====
==== '''Combination of both phrases'''<br>  ====

Revision as of 10:15, 16 July 2012

Prev: Study Guide:Delivery - Overview: Study Guide - Next: Study Guide:Tower


Ground is responsible for all movements of aircraft on ground, except the movements on the runway. Ground takes over responsibility for Delivery if he is not online.


Start-up clearance

Start-up clearance can be given if no other aircraft is taxiing behind the starting-up aircraft and if the take-off is expected in 20 minutes or less.

Austrian 125, start-up approved, (Temperature Minus 3)

Push-back clearance

Push-back clearance can be given if no other aircraft is passing behind and the parking position requires push-back.

Austrian 125, push-back approved

Combination of both phrases

During low traffic you can use these two phrases together

Austrian 125, start(-up) and push(-back) approved

Taxi Instructions

The pilot pushes back and starts the aircrafts engines. As soon as he is ready for taxi he will call you:

AUA125:AUA125, ready for taxi.

Depending on traffic you can give him the taxi instruction to his departure runway:

GND:AUA125, taxi to holding point Rwy 16 via taxiways Exit 4, L and F, QNH 1019.
AUA125:Taxiing to holding point runway 29 via L and F, AUA125.

Sometimes it is necessary to hold an aircraft in front of another taxiway:

GND:AUA125, hold short of taxiway L.
AUA125:Holding short of L, AUA125.

When an aircraft is approaching its assigned holding-point (and clear of possible traffic-conflict) a hand-off to next higher position (i.e. TWR) shall be initiated as soon as possible.

GND:AUA125, contact now Salzburg Tower on frequency 118.10, bye bye!
AUA125:contacting Tower on frequency 118,10 bye!

Air-taxiing is the Movement of a helicopter / VTOL above the surface of an aerodrome, normally in ground effect and at a ground speed of normally less than 20 KT (37 km/h). Please Note: The actual height may vary, and some helicopters may require air-taxiing above 25 FT (8 m) AGL to reduce ground effect turbulence or provide clearance for cargo sling loads.

OEATD: request air taxi to Runway 29.
GND: OEATD, air taxi to Runway 29 via Exit 13 and M.

Ground Traffic Management

Bear in mind, that it is GND's job that he can taxi freely. If an aircraft has clearance, it can roll without looking anywhere else than straight ahead. You must see if the way is clear. But on a busy evening, you will have 5-10 aircraft taxiing at the same time. How you do this that they don't bump into each other, is called Ground Traffic Management.

To organise the traffic on ground different techniques are available, some of them relying on the pilots seeing each other. Generally you should avoid clearing two aircraft onto crossing pathways, unless you are sure they will never meet each other. To achieve this you should instruct aircraft to hold short of taxiways in the way stated above.

There are a few tools which you can use:

Taxiway configurations

Only one aircraft can taxi on a taxiway, so you have to order the traffic flow. On larger airports, you set the rules where outbound and where inbound aircraft roll. For LOWW, there is a nice document by Patrick Hrusa (thanks!). For LOWI, there is a nice LOWI_Primer by Claus and Hermann.

Step-by-step clearance

A very secure, but time-consuming way to control. Clear the aircraft only as far as it is definitely clear:

GND: AUA251, taxi to intersection M via E.
GND: AUA251, taxi to Exit 9 via M.
GND: AUA251, taxi to gate D21 via Exit 9.

You need a lot of time and patience for this, and with more traffic, you will end up in an overload soon.

Conditional clearance

This provides much more flow, but you have to think in advance. See, which aircraft approach to where and give one of them a conditional clearance to stop some point and give way. Make sure that the condition is clear: a specific intersection, a precise plane from a precise direction, like this:

GND: AUA251, taxi to gate D21 via E, M and Exit 9, hold short M for company A320 turning on M from your right.

"Conditional clearance" means: AUA251 is free to taxi until its final clearance limit (D21), but stops inbetween until the condition is met, in this case: another Austrian A320 taxiing (presumably on D) and turning in before him. Then, he is free to continue without instruction. "Hold short" means: You are cleared to your destination, but you should stop inbetween.

Intermediate instructions

Sometimes, things go differently as expected: Aircraft stop to sort out checklists, or they speed up. You might need to re-clear or stop the plane, like:

GND: AUA251, hold position, say again: hold position
GND: AUA251, continue.
GND: AUA251, hold short intersection W for a B190 crossing from your right to your left.
GND: AUA251, gate change, taxi to gate F1 via M, Exit 12 and taxilane 34, hold short Exit 12 and give way to B737 crossing from left to right.

Progressive Taxi

Some pilots don't know how to taxi, and some don't know where to taxi, and they can drive you mad. To them, you can issue progressive taxi instructions:

GND: Leipzig Air 600, hold position, expect progressive taxi.
GND: Leipzig Air 600, turn next left hold next intersection.
GND: Leipzig Air 600, turn right, on third intersection left and hold.

Consider the following situation:

You are the Ground Controller at Vienna Airport. Runways active are 34 for landing and 29 for departure. DLH6KM has vacated rwy 34 and requests taxi to its parking position. LZB421 is ready for taxi at stand 7Q.
GND:DLH6KM taxi to stand C40 via taxiway D and L.
DLH6KM:Taxiing to stand C40 via D and L, DLH6KM.
LZB421:Wien ground LZB421 stand 7Q, ready for taxi.
GND:LZB421, taxi taxiway W, hold short of taxiway L.
LZB421:taxiing via W holding short of L.
The aircraft are now both approaching the intersection L/W.
GND:LZB421, give way to the DLH B737 crossing left to right on L, thereafter continue
taxi to holding point runway 29 via taxiways Exit 2, M and A1.
LZB421:Giving way to the 737 from left to right, then continuing taxi to holding point
runway 29 via Exit 2, M and A1.

Of course you have to make sure that this instruction is unambiguous, so there shouldn't be two DLH B737s in the area. Also in low visibility operations this procedure might not work very well, in this case you might have to give the aircraft the instruction to continue taxi when the other aircraft has passed. In some cases it is also useful to let one aircraft follow the other:

GND:LZB421, follow the Austrian DASH 8 crossing you right to left on M to holding point runway 29.
LZB421:following the DASH 8 crossing us right to left on M to holding point runway 29.

Intersection departure

Some flights do not need the whole length of their given departure runway so they might request takeoff from an intersection somewhere down the runway. This procedure is called a intersection takeoff. You should only grant this in coordination with Tower and if traffic situation permits. Also at some airports intersections are used to be more flexible in the departure sequence (see section Departure Seperation).

Special Situations (High Traffic, Slots, ...)


In case the above mentioned slot regulations are in force ground has the responsibility to set up a departure sequence in a way that the aircraft do not miss their slot.

Opposite runway operations

At some austrian airports it is very common to use opposite runway configurations (departure and arrival runway are opposite to each other). In these situations it can happen very fast that you have two aircraft facing each other nose to nose. Special attention should be paid to avoid this situation.

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