Study Guide:Radio Telephony:GND

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About this Document

This is a reference document to the Study_Guide:Ground.

These pages are still at work. Comments, corrections and additions are welcome!

Contact and Handover are not referenced here any more: Every station handles it the same way - see the section Study_Guide:Radio_Telephony#Contact_-_messages_-_handover for details.


To get moving, the first request is to start the engines. GND grants this if there is no object behind and if pushback is less than some minutes away.

AUA251: Ground, Austrian 251, Gate 31, requesting startup
GND: Austrian 251, startup approved
GND: Austrian 251, standby, expect startup in 2 minutes
GND: Austrian 251, standby, report back in 2 minutes

If you want to avoid excessive standing-around-on-the-apron-and-blocking-the-way (like in Innsbruck), then you can approve with:

GND: Austrian 251, startup approved, call for push with running engines.


Standard push approval is mostly linked to startup (as usually aircraft start up while they are pushed). In some conditions, push can be specified:

GND: Austrian 251, start and push approved[, long push onto L] [,facing <direction: east/west/northeast...>].