Study Guide: Approach
- 1 General
- 2 Phraseology
- 3 FAQs
- 4 References
- 5 Local Procedures
TMA controller includes approach and departure control services associated with a particular airport.
General radar procedures
Identifikation mit Hilfe eines Transponders
Ein Transponder ist ein Bauteil von den gängigen Verkehrs- und Sportflugzeugen, es dient zur Übermittlung von Daten an die Flugverkehrskontrollstelle um die Flugsicherung zu vereinfachen. Mit Hilfe des Transponders ist es möglich, einem Kontakt auf dem Primärradar ein Callsign und einen Flugplan zu zuordnen. Aus diesem Grund erhält jeder Instrumentenflug und spezielle VFR Verfahren von der Flugverkehrskontrollstelle einen Transpondercode zugewiesen.
Flugzeuge mit Transpondermode A senden nur den zugewiesenen Transpondercode.
Flugzeuge mit Transpondermode C sind in der Lage neben dem Transpondercode auch die aktuelle Flughöhe, gemessen vom barometrischen Höhenmesser. Die übermittelte Höhe ist unabhängig vom eingestellten QNH, die Übermittlung erfolgt in 100-Fuß-Schritten.
Transpondermode S übermittelt neben dem Squawk und der Flughöhe zusätzlich das Callsign des Flugzeugs.
the role of Approach Controllers
TMA Controllers (S3) includes approach and departure control services associated with a particular airport.
- maintain an orderly flow of traffic
- provide a separation service between aircraft
- provide assistance to pilots
The greatest difference when you are starting you TMA-carreer will be the separation between approaching and departing traffic.
There are some separation in your airspace:
- Vertical separation: should be at least RVSM 1000ft, Non-RVSM 2000ft. Austria uses RVSM (Reduced Vertical Seperation Minima). So you can use 1000ft up to FL410.
- Horizonal separation: The Minimum Horizontal Seperation depends on the radar equipment involved. APP Sectors work with a minimum of 3 nm, CTR Sectors use 5 nm.
How to maintain visual separation?
You may use:
- Lateral vectoring When issuing a heading to an aircraft, make sure that you are using a direction ending on 0 (zero) or on 5 (five).
- Vertical vectoring: climbing or descending. For departing or arriving traffic you also can use a "stop climbing/descending at FLxxx" to avoid a conflict.
- Speed limit: A controller may issue speed instructions within an aircrafts operating limits. There are two possible ways to do this, either by using Indicated Airspeed (FL280 or below) or by specifying a Mach number (FL280 or above). Take notice of the minimum speed of the aircraft! Normally you are working with "minimum clean" (means the lowest speed an aircraft can maintain without using flaps or spoilers) above FL100. The second is “minimum approach speed” which is the lowest speed an aircraft can maintain using both flaps and spoilers.
Standard clearances for arriving aircraft shall contain the following items, if applicable:
1. Aircraft identification
2. Designator of assigned STAR
3. Runway-in-use, except when part of the STAR description
4. Initial level, except when this element is included in the START description and
5. Any other necessary instructions or information not contained in the START description, e.g. change of communication
Type of approach procedure
G: CLEARED / PROCEED VIA (designator) ARRIVAL
G: CLEARED TO (clearance limit) VIA (designator) ARRIVAL
G: CLEARED (type of approach) APPROACH RUNWAY (number)
G: CLEARED LOCALIZER APPROACH [RUNWAY (number)] [GLIDE PATH INOPERATIVE]
G: CLEARED APPROACH RUNWAY (number)
A: REQUEST (type of approach) APPROACH [RUNWAY (number)]
G: (type of approach) NOT AVAILABLE DUE (reason) [alternative instructions]
A: REQUEST (RNAV plain language designator)
G: CLEARED (RNAV plain language designator)
G: ARE YOU FAMILIAR WITH (name) APPROACH PROCEDURE [RUNWAY (number)]?
A: REQUEST STRAIGHT-IN / DIRECT [type of approach] APPROACH [RUNWAY (number)]
G: CLEARED STRAIGHT-IN / DIRECT [type of approach] APPROACH [RUNWAY (number)]
Approach instructions with radar
G: VECTORING FOR (tpye of pilot interpreted aid) APPROACH RUNWAY (number)
G: VETORING FOR VISUAL APPROACH RUNWAY (number), REPORT FIELD / RUNWAY IN SIGHT
G: VECTORING FOR (positioning in the circuit)
G: VECTORING FOR SURVEILLANCE RADAR APPROACH RUNWAY (number)
G: VECTORING FOR PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY (number)
G: (type) APPROACH NOT AVAILABLE DUE (reason) (alternative instructions)
G: POSITION (number) MILES FROM (position) / TOUCH DOWN. TURN LEFT / RIGHT HEADING (three digits)
G: YOU WILL INTERCEPT (radio aid or track) (distance) FROM (significant point) / TOUCH DOWN
A: REQUEST (distance) FINAL
G: CLEARED FOR (type) APPROCH RUNWAY (number)
G: REPORT ESABLISHED [ON ILS / LOCALIZER / GLIDE PATH]
G: REPORT ESTABLISHED ON FINAL APPROACH TRACK
G: CLOSING FROM LEFT / RIGHT [REPORT ESTABLISHED]
G: TURN LEFT / RIGHT HEADING (three digits) [TO INTERCEPT [RIGHT TO LEFT / LEFT TO RIGHT / REPORT ESTABLISHED]
G: EXPECT VECTORS ACROSS (localizer or radio aid) (reason)
G: THIS TURN WILL TAKE YOU THROUGH (localizer or radio aid) [reason]
G: TAKING YOU THROUGH (localizer or radio aid) [reason]
G: MAINTAIN (altitude) UNTIL GLIDE PATH INTERCEPTION
G: REPORT ESTABLISHED ON GLIDE PATH
G: INTERCEPT (localizer or radio aid) [REPORT ESTABLISHED]
G: INTERCEPT (radio aid) [LEFT TO RIGHT / RIGHT TO LEFT]
G: CLEARED FOR ILS APPROACH RUNWAY (number) LEFT / RIGHT
G: YOU HAVE CROSSED THE LOCALIZER. TURN LEFT / RIGHT IMMEDIATELY AND RETURN TO THE LOCALIZER
G: ILS RUNWAY (number) LEFT / RIGHT LOCALIZER FREQUENCY IS (number)
G: TURN LEFT / RIGHT (number) DEGREES / HEADING (three digits) IMMEDIATELY TO AVOID TRAFFIC [DEVIATING FROM ADJACENT APPROACH], CLIMB TO (level)
G: CLIMB TO (level) IMMEDIATELY TO AVOID TRAFFIC [DEVIATING FROM ADJACENT APPORACH] (further instructions)
G: GO AROUND IMMEDIATELY (missed approach instruction) (reason)
G: IF GOING AROUND (appropriate instructions)
G: ARE YOU GOING AROUND?
A: GOING AROUND
Level changes, reports and rates
G: CLIMB / DESCEND
- TO (level)
- TO AND MAINTAIN BLOCK (level) TO (level)
- TO REACH (level) AT / BY (time or significant point)
- REPORT LEAVING / REACHING / PASSING (level)
- AT (number) FEET PER MINUTE [OR GREATER / LESS]
G: REQUEST LEVEL / FLIGHT LEVEL / ALTITUDE CHANGE FROM (name of level) [AT (time or significant point)]
G: STOP CLIMB / DESCENT AT (level)
G: CONTINUE CLIMB / DESCENT TO (level)
G: EXPEDITE CLIMB / DESCEND [UNTIL PASSING (level)]
G: RESUME NORMAL RATE OF CLIMB / DESCENT
G: REPORT LEAVING / REACHING / PASSING (level)
G: WHEN READY CLIMB / DESCENT TO (level)
G: EXPEDITE CLIMB / DESCENT AT (time of significant point)
G: EXPEDITE CLIMB / DESCENT UNTIL PASSING (level)
A: REQUEST DESCENT AT (time)
A: REQUEST ALTITUDE (number FEET) / FLIGHT LEVEL (number) VIA (route) [DUE TO (reason)]
A: REQUEST LEVEL CHANGE / CLIMB / DESCENT AT (time / position)
G: EXPECT LEVEL CHANGE / CLIMB / DESCENT
- FROM (name of unit)
- AT (time or position)
- AFTER PASSING (position)
- IN (number) MINUTES
G: AFTER PASSING (significant point)
G: AT (time or significant point)
G: WHEN READY (instructions)
G. LEAVE (significant point) HEADING (three digits) [INBOUND [AT (time)]
G: CONTINUE HEADING (three digits)
G: CONTINUE PRESENT HEADING
G: FLY HEADING (three digits)
G: TURN LEFT / RIGHT HEADING (three digits) [reason]
G: TURN LEFT / RIGHT (number) DEGREES [reason]
G: STOP TURN HEADING (three digits)
G: FLY HEADING (three digits), WHEN ABLE PROCEED DIRECT (name) (significant point)
G: HEADING IS GOOD
G: WHEN ABLE PROCEED DIRECT (position)
G: SUGGEST (suggestion)
G: IF UNABLE [(alternative instructions)] ADVISE
A: UNABLE TO COMPLY (reason)
G: VECTORING FOR SPACING / SEPERATION / DELAY
G: VECTORING DUE TO TRAFFIC
G: RESUME OWN NAVIGATION (position of a/c) (specific instructions)
G: RESUME OWN NAVIGATION [DIRECT] (significant point) [MAGNETIC TRACK (three digits) DISTANCE (number) MILES]
G: MAKE A THREE SIXTY TURN LEFT / RIGHT [reason]
G: ORBIT LEFT / RIGHT [reason]
G: MAKE ALL TURNS RATE ONE / RATE HALF (number) DEGREES PER SECOND START AND STOP ALL TURNS ON THE COMMAND “NOW”
G: ALL TURNS RATE ONE / RATE HALF (number) DEGREES PER SECOND, EXECUTE ISNTRUCTIONS IMMEDIATELY UPON RECEIPT
G: TURN LEFT / RIGHT NOW
G: STOP TURN NOW
G: REPORT SPEED
G: REPORT INDICATED AIRSPEED / TRUE AIRSPEED / MACH NUMBER
A: SPEED (number) KNOTS / MACH (number)
G: MAINTAIN (number) KNOTS / MACH (number) [OR GREATER / LESS] [UNTIL (significant point)]
G: DO NOT EXCEED (number) KNOTS / MACH (number)
G: MAINTAIN PRESENT SPEED
G: INCREASE / REDUCE SPEED (number) KNOTS / MACH (number) [OR GREATER / LESS]
G: INCREASE / REDUCE SPEED BY (number) KNOTS / MACH (number) [OR GREATER / LESS]
A: UNABLE TO COMPLY, INDICATED AIRSPEED WILL BE (number) KNOTS / MACH (number)
G: RESUME NORMAL SPEED
G: REDUCE TO MINIMUM APPROACH SPEED
G: REDUCE TO MINIMUM CLEAN SPEED
G: REDUCE TO MINUMUM SPEED
A: MINUMUM SPEED / MINIMUM CLEAN SPEED / MINIMUM APPROACH SPEED IS (number) KNOTS
G: NO [ATC] SPEED RESTRICTIONS
A: CANCELLING IFR
G: IFR CANCELLED AT (time)
A: REQUEST IFR CLEARANCE
G: CLEARED TO (clearance limit), VIA (route) (level) (other instructions), IFR [FLIGHT] STARTS AT (position or time) / WHEN REACHING (level) / PASSING (level) / NOW [(instructions)]
G: CLEARED NIGHT VFR
G: CLEARED SPECIAL VFR
How do I work with STARs and Transitions?
STAR means Standard Instrument Arrival is like a route to the airport.This road has a name that has three parts. The first part is the navigational point where the route starts, the second is the version number, and the third is usually but again not always coupled to a certain runway(s). Transitions are connecting between the end of STAR to the final.
Using STARs and Transition simplifies the arrival considerably for both pilots and controllers. By clearing "transition and profile" the pilot has also the clearance for descending as published. So you can expect the track, descend and speed of an aircraft.
How to use a Holding?
The primary use of a holding is delaying aircraft that have arrived over their destination but cannot land yet because of traffic congestion, poor weather, or unavailability of the runway. Several aircraft may fly the same holding pattern at the same time, separated vertically by 1,000 feet or more.
A holding is situated around a holding fix. In a standard holding pattern the aircraft flies inbound to the holding fix on a certain course (Inbound leg). After passing the fix it turns right (standard turn: 2° per second) and flies one minute (1,5 min above FL 140) into the other direction (outbound leg). After one minute the pilot turns right again (standard turn) and establishes again on the inbound leg.
If you count all this together you end up with four minutes required to finish one holding pattern. However some holding patterns use left turns, others don't use one minute to measure the outbound leg, but fly to a certain distance.
Also every holding has a minimum altitude.
What does MRVA mean?
Minimum Radar Vectoring Altitude: lowest altitude above MSL that can be used for IFR vectoring
When is the best moment for my handoff?
Out of conflict and as early as possible.
Which classes of airspace are provided in Austria?
- C (Charlie) controlled airspace, IFR and VFR possible, aircontroll is mandatory. IFR will be separated to other IFR and VFR traffic, VFR traffic receive traffic information about other VFR traffic. C starts AT FL195 and inside Special Rules Area (e.g. SRA Wien)
- D (Delta) controlled airspace, IFR and VFR possible, aircontroll is mandatory. IFR is separated to other IFR and receives traffic information about other VFR; VFR traffic reveives information about other traffic. D in Austria covers space between FL125 and FL195 (CTA) and inside contolled zones and certain SRA.
- E (Echo) controlled airspace only for IFR; VFR receives information as far as possible. In Austria up to FL125 in inside of certain TCAs (Terminal Control Areas).
- G (Golf) uncontrolled airspace. Traffic information as far as possible.
What are Y and Z-flights?
Basically these are flights with a change between IFR/VFR
- Y starts with IFR, changing to VFR (IFR cancellation)
- Z starts with VFR, changing to IFR (IFR pickup)
Information about airspaces and airways can be found here: 
Details about air pressure and altitudes you will find here: 
Links for the reference (working) sheets you find at the airport details.
LOWW_APP can be divided into up to six Sectors:
The decision which sectors are used shall be based on traffic Situation.
Transition Altitude: 5000ft
- vertikal: GND - FL245 - lateral: see appendix and shown by sectorfile
- LOVV_CTR should clear traffic for LOWW STAR. Hand-off 2 minutes before listed waypoints below:
- LHCC: approaching traffic is maintaining FL140 over GIGOR
- LZBB: arriving traffic via TOKVA has to maintain FL160 and via REKLU FL180
- LKAA: FL 130 via MIKOV/LEDVA and FL170 via LANUX FL170
- via UMBIL, OSPEN, SITNI, LUGIM and MOTIX cleared to FL200.
Those flights are released to LOVV_CTR for further climb within the Release Area South and Release Area West (see Appendix)
- via LANUX, KOVEL, MIKOV, LEDVA cleared FL240 to LKAA_CTR.
- via SASAL, STEIN cleared FL230 to LHCC_CTR
- via ABLOM cleared FL150 (ABLOM FL130 or above) to LZBB_CTR.
- LOWW to LOWL: maximum FL160 (hand-off to LOWL_APP)
- LOWW to LOWG: maximum FL160 (hand-off to LOWG_APP)
- LOWW to LOWS / LOWK / LOWI: if requested FL is above FL160, traffic shall be transferred to LOVV_CTR.
Inbound / Outbound LZIB (Bratislava) and LKTB (Brno)
- Inbounds LKTB and LZIB shall be cleared from LOVV_CTR to FL210 and hand-off short before Approach Area Wien.
- Outbounds LKTB and LZIB shall be cleared to FL240 and hand-off to LOVV_CTR.
FL070 (KUNET at level)
FL110 (MIKOV at level)
LOWW to LZIB
FL070 (ABLOM at level)
LZIB to LOWW
6000ft (TOVKA at level)
- Coordination regarding procedures not listed in this document shall be done in due time with the respective and responsible ATC unit.
- LOWW_APP may send departing traffic to the last waypoint of the SID without coordination.
- Hand-off for arrivals to LZIB short before MIRLU.
reference sheet you find downloads.vacc-austria.org/Documents/QRS_LOWW_v1.3.pdf
Transition Altitude: 11000ft
- vertikal: GND - FL165
- LOC/DME West via KTI FL130 over KTI
- LOC//DME East via RTT 9500ft over RTT
- RNP – RNAV Approach Runway 26: instrumental approach with lower minimas, final also a visual approach. Only on pilot request; different miss-appproach-procedure
- All arrivals are going via AB, finals after AB are always visual
The reference sheet you find: downloads.vacc-austria.org/Documents/QRS_LOWI_v1.2.pdf
Transition Altitude: 4000ft
- vertikal: GND - FL165
Arrivals There are no STARs in LOWG. Most of the arrival routes ends at GRZ-VOR. After GRAZ normally vectors are used.
- ILS 35C starts at 3300ft. Best way is to intercept at LENIZ at 3500ft.
- VOR-DME 35C: Approach über GRZ-VOR nach DME 7.0 GRZ (heading 147°), danach vector auf final track
- VOR-DME 17C: Approach über GRZ-VOR, starts at D15. GRZ 7000ft, descend profile see chart.
- LHCC_CTR via GOTAR FL150
- LJLA_CTR via RADLY FL160
- LOVV_CTR FL160
Transition Altitude: 7000ft
- vertikal: GND - FL165
- ILS 28
- NDB-DME 28
- NDB-DME 10
- Circling 10: Anflug über ILS28, desc. 3000ft, circeling starts at KI
- LJLA_CTR via REKTI FL160
- LOVV_CTR FL160
Transition Altitude: 4000ft
- vertikal: GND - FL125
EDDM_S_APP via NAPSA and TRAUN
EDDM_CTR via TRAUN
rest to LOVV_CTR, all FL120
reference sheet you find at downloads.vacc-austria.org/Documents/QRS_LOWS_v1.1.pdf
Transition Altitude: 4000ft
- vertikal: GND - FL165
ILS/VOR 08 (ILS 08 not in standard FSX)
(former RWYs known as 09 and 27)
EDDM_CTR via PABSA and TRAUN
LKAA_CTR via ADLET
rest to LOVV_CTR, all FL160
reference sheet you find at downloads.vacc-austria.org/Documents/QRS_LOWL_v1.0.pdf